50 (1541) 11.12.2021 - 17.12.2021

 볭 Ⳮ볭 1906 . - .  ³ -Ⳮ, Ⳮ .

/i/content/pi/cult/881/18673/32.jpg­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­ “­ ­­” ­ ­­­ (1891–1917) ­­ ’Ⳣ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. 1958, 1963  1973 ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. 1978 ­ ­­ ­­­ “­­ ­­” ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ (1917–1980) ­­­­­­ ­­.

­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ’­­ ­­ 10 000 ­­ 1981 ­ ­ ­­­ “­­”. ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ — ­ ­ ­ (1937–2005) ­­ ­­ ­­ (1937–1992), ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ͳ­ ­­ (1908–1997) ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­, ͳ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­­. ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ (­­ ­ ­, 1968) ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ “ ­” (1975), ­­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­ “­ ­­­” (1977). ͳ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­, ­­ ’Ⳣ­ ­ ­­ ­­ “­” (³­­, 1927), ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ “­”, ­­ ­, ­­ 1915 ­.

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ 100-­ ­­ ­­­­. ­ ̳­­­ ­­ 1991 ­ ­ ­­­ 100-­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­: “100 ­ ­­­”, ­ ­­ ­­­: “­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ 1891–1917”. ­ ­­ ’­ ­­ ߢ­ ­­­­­.

­­­­ ­­ 100-­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ -. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ’­ ­­ ­ ­­­-­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­.

­­ 100-­ ­­ ­ ­­­ “­­”. 1991 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ̳­­ ­­.

­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ 1986 ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­­ 1998 ­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­, ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­, ­, ­­­ , ­­ , ­­. 1996 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ 500 ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ (1869–1896). ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­: “ ­ ­ : ­, ­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ !”. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ “­”:

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ͳ ­ ­, ,

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­­­ .

­­: ­볢­­,

­­, —

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­­ ­ ­­.

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­­­ ­ ­,

­­ ­­

­, ­.

1997 ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ 400 ­­.

­­-­­­ , ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ (1939–2011) ­­ 1990 ­ ­ 1999- ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ 1700 ­ ­­­, ­­, ­­­, ­­­ ­­­­-­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­縢, ­­­, ­­­-­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­, ­­, ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­: ­ ­ — ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­­ — ߢ­ ­ “­ — ­ ­­” ­­: “­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­…”.

­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ 115-­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­­­­ 1911 ­ ­­ ­. “­­ ­ ­­­ ­!” — ­ ­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­ — “­ ­­” “­” (­ 17 ­) — ­: “ ­” “­­­”.

­­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ 1970- ­. 1977 ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­-­­: ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ “­­” ­­ ­­­­. 1981 ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ “­­ ”.

1994 ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ “­­­ ­­­­”, ­ ­­ ­­ (­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­), ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­糳 ­ “­­­ ­”, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­.

­­­­ ­­ ̳­ ­­ ­ ­ 120-­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­-­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­.

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