. ,

40 (1531) 02.10.2021 - 08.10.2021

୸ Ⳮ ղ , ୸ 볭 , ﳢ .

/i/content/pi/cult/871/18471/31.jpg­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­, ­­­ , ­ ­­­ ­, , ­ , ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ , ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ 1823 ­, ­ ­­­ . ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ “ , ­ ­”, ­ ­­ “­­ ­­, ­… ­”. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ “ ­­, ­ ­­­”.

­ ­

1840- ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ’ “­­”, ­­­ ­, ­, , ̳, ­­ , ­­­, ­­­­ ­ (­ 1847 ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­). 1844 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ “­­” ­­ ­. ­ ’­­ , ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ 1857 ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­.

, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ , ­, ­ ­­ ­. 1843 ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ — ­ ­ ­­ (­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­). “­­ ­”, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­­, ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ’ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­.

­ ­­ — ­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­, 8 ­­ 1846 ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ʳ­­. ­­. ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­-ʳ­. ­ 1857 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ’­ ­, ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ 1863 ­, ­­ ( ­ ­) ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­.

­­ ­. ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­, “­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­­” ­ ­. ­ ­­ 1864 ­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­.

/i/content/pi/cult/871/18471/32.jpg­, ­­­ ­­²

1817 ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ (’ ­­ ­­­ ­­ 1794 ­) ­­ ­­ “­­ ­­”. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­. 1842 ­ ­­­ ³­­. ­ ­­ ­ (­ ­) ­­­ ­­ ­­. ̳­ , 1858 ­ ­ ­­­ ­ (­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­) ­­­ ­ “­­ ­­”, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­-­.

­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­Ⳣ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­: “ ­­볢­ ­­; ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, , ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­, ­, ­ ­볢, ­ ­ ”. ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­᳢­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ — “­ ­­” (­­ ­ ­), ­ “­ ­”. ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ — 1860 ­ ­­­ ­.

1864 ­, ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­ “­” ­ ­ ­­. ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­.

1867 ­, ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­ — “­ ­­­­ ­­”, ­ 1868  1892 . ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­糢 “­­ ­ ”.

­ ­­ 1 ­­ 1892 ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ’ ­ ­­­.

­ ­­²

­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ 1863 ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­᳢­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ — ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ . ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­᳢ ­­ ­­­ ­ : “­­ ­”, “­­” , ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ (1853 ­), ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­, ­ ­ ­. , ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ³­­ ­­­. 1875 ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­-­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­-­­­. ­ ³­­ 1928 ­, ­ 95 . ­­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­-­­ 1863 ­ ­ ­­.

­

ó­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­, ̲ ­ ­ ­­ “p. Kondrat” ( ­­). ­­ ­­­ ­­­ — Condrat, Conradi, Konrad, Kodrat, ­­ . ֳ ­ ­­ ­­ ­-, ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­? , ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­, ­ 1852 ­, ­­ﳢ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­, ­볢 ­ ­­ ­, ­­, ­­­, , ­, ­, ­­­­ ­­. ­­, ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ , “ ­ ­”. 1858 ­, ­­, ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ 1863 ­. , ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­.

­

1847 ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ “­­” (­­ ­ ­­­). ­ ­­­. ­ ­­, ­­, 1 ­­ 1848 ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ( 1854 ­ “­­” ­ ­­­ ­­ ­). 1857 ­, ­­, ­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ³­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. - ­­ ­­ ­ 1858 ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ 1857 ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­­­, ³­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ “­­” ­­­ — ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ 1 ­­ 1858 ­. ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­?

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­. ˸ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ 1857 ­, ­ 22 , ­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ — ­­ ­­­ “­­­­ ­­”. ­­ ­­­ — ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­­ 1857 ­ ­ ­­? ­ ­, ­­­ ­ 1857 ­, ­ ­? ­ ­ , ­­ ­­ ­ ­? ­­ ­ ­­ ­­.

­ò

­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­ — ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ’­­ 1862 ­, 6  1863 ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ (­­ 28 ­­­ 1865-). ­ ­­­ “­” ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ “­” ­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­ , ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­-­­, 1879 ­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ -­­­­ “­ ­­”, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ “ ­­”. ­ ­ ­­­ 1892 ­, ­ ­­ ­ .

: ²
"", -