̳ , -

49 (1540) 04.12.2021 - 10.12.2021

୸ ʔ 糭 ̳ .

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­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­, ­­­ ­­糢­ ­­­ 29 ­­­ 1828 ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ̳­­--­­ ­­, ­­糢­ ̳­ 30 ­­­ ( ­­ ­­­ 12 ­). ­­ 13 (25) ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­? ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. dz­. ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ̳ — ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ — ­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ( ­ ­) ­­­ ϳ­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ϳ­­ (­ ­­­), ­­­ ­­­, ³­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ̳­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­ — ­ ­ (1831) ­­ ­­­ (1833) (­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­). , ­ ­ — ­ ­, ­ ­­­­­­ ­­.

ϳ­­, ­­, ­­, ­­ ­­

­­ ­ ­­­ , ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ — ̳. Ѹ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ . ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­. , ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ϳ­­. ­­­ ϳ­­ ( ­­) — ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­. ­ — ­, ­ ­­­ 1877 ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ( ­­ ­­­­). ­­, , ­­­, 1812 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ̳­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ϳ­­.  1827 ­ ­­ 1- ­­­­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­ 2- ­­­­, ­, 1812 ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ̳­ ­­ (­­, ­ —  ­­). 1835 ­ ­­ ϳ­­ ­­ ­ “­ ­­­­ ­­”. ­ ­ ­ (­ “­­ ­­-­­­­”), 1836 ­ ­­­ ­­ ϳ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ (­ ­­) ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ³­­ ­­-­­­­. ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­볢 ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ (ϳ­­­ ­, “­­­”). ­ ­ “­­­ ­ ­­­”, ­­­, ­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ —  ­­ (­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­). ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­⸢­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­-­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ( ­ ­­ ­­-­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ³­­­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­). ­, ­ ­­ ­­. ­ ϳ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­, ­, ­ ϳ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ (­­ ­­­ ­­). ­­ ­, ­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­­... ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ղ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­? ֳ­­, ­ ­­ ­­, ­­, ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­.

³­­ ­­ ­

1840 (1841) ­ ­­ ­­ ̳­­ ³­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­ , ̳­ ­­  — ­ ̳­ ­ (­­ ­­ ­­­, ­), ­ ­­­ — (­ “­” ­­­­ ­­) ³­ ( ­­­ ­ ­ ̳­­­ — ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, . “”  18, 2021), ­ ­­­ ( ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, .“”  28, 2020). ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ — ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ (1834–1863) ­ ­ ­ 3637 ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ (­­, ­­, ­­­, , ­­ .), ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­.

­­ ’ ­­­

­­ 1848 ­ ­ ­ “­­ ­­ ­­­”, ̳­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ (XIV «­­ ­»), ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­ -­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, - ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­, ­ 1850 ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ﳢ ­ ­­­ ³­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ “­­­ ­­­­ ­­”. ­ ’ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. 1852 ­ ­ ­ ̳­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­. ­­­ ­­, 1853 ­, ̳­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ (­­-­­). ­ — ̳­ ­­ (­, ­­­) ­ (­­, ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­). ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ (­ ­­­­ ­­­), ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ “­ ­­” (­­­, ­ ­ ­­­), ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ (­­­ ­­­­), ­ ­ ­­ ­­ “­ ­­”(!). ­ ­ ̳­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ (1854–1916, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­) ­ (1856) ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ 1860 ­ ̳­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­ “ ­ ­” ­­­ ̳­­ ­­ ­ .

­­

9 (21) ­­ 1862 ­ ­ (­ ­­­) ̳­ ­­, ­ 34 , ­ ­­糳 ­­, 24 , ­ ­ ­­­ ̳­­­ ­­.

­­ ­ “­” — ­ ­­­  — 17 . ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ — ­ ­­ (1870) ѳ­­ (1876).

­ ­ (­, 5 (17) ­­­ 1904 ­) ̳­ ­­ ­­­, ⸢ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­. ­ ̳­­ ­­ 1912 ­, ­ ­, 12 (24 ­­­) 1909 ­, ­ 74 ­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ’ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­.

­ ­­ ­­­

­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­ , ­ ­­­­­­, ­­ ­ ³­­­ ­­­­ ’ ­­ (­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­), ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ’­­ IV ­ “­” ­ ̳­­­, “­ ­­” “˳­ ­­” ­­­ ­­­, “­ ­” ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ (­ ­­, ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­), ­ ­­­ (­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­), ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­ , ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­. “­­” ­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­, ­­­­ ̳­. ­­ ­­ . ­, ­ ­, ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ “­­” “­­” 볳 ­­, “­-­” ­ ­­, “­-­” ­볳 ­, “­­ ­­” ­­ ­ ­ ̳­­ ­­, “­­ ­­­­ ­­”  ѳ­­볳 ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­, “­­­ ­­” ̳­­ ­­­, ­­ “­-­” “­­ ­ ­­” ­ “” ­­­­ ­. ­ ­­ 12 ­ ­­­­, 1873  1879 ­ ­­­­ ̳­, -­­­ ­­.

­

­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­: “­­ ­ ­­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. , ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ , ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ̳­­­­, ­­­ , ­­ ­­­, ̳­­ ­­. ­ ̳­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­”.

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