. ?

23 (1566) 04.06.2022 - 10.06.2022

. Ѹ 140 (7 ), 150 (4 ) 100 , . 1922 . , , -.

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. 1865 .


­­ ­­

­ 1846 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ (1819—1872) ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ³­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­볢­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­쳢­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ (1824—1882), ­­­ .. “­­ ­­­” — ­­ ­­, ­­­, ­­­­ ­­­, ­, ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ “­­­” “­­”. ­ ­­­ “­­”, 1845 ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­. ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ’ 1847 ­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ³­­ ­ “­­” ­ ­ ­.

³­­ ’ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­, ­­­ 1 ­­ 1848 ­. 1854 ­ ­­­ “­­” ­­­ ³­­, 1856 — ̳­ ­. 1 ­­ 1858 ­ ­­ ­­ “­­” ­­­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. 1868  ­ ­­ ­, 1869 — ­, 1873 — ʳ­. ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ — - (1903), ̳­ (1905), ­ (1921), ­ (1926)… , ­, ­ .. (­, ­ 25 ­).

­­? ­­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ̳­ ­­ 1975 ­. ­᳢ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­ 2019 “­­” ­­­ ­­­ ­ -­­­ ( ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­).

­ 糢­, ­­­ ­ ­ — ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­ , ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­­ “­­­­ ­­­ ­­­” …

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­Ͳ-­ֲ­­², ­­², ²­ò . ­­

­­­ ­, ­ ­, ­­ ­­ “­­” ­­­­ ­­ ̳­. ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ 1922 ­. ­ “­ ­­ ­­ ­­ “­ ­” (³­­, 1923): “­­”. 1922. ­­­­ ­”. ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ 1928 ­ “­ ­” (IV .).

­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ (­­­ Ը­ ­­). 1918- ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­, ­­­­­ ­ “­­” ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­ , ­, ­­ “, ­­”, “­­” — ­­­.

­­, 1895  1904  ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ (­ ­­ ­, ­­­). ­­­­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ “­ ­­”.

­­ ­­, ­ ­ (­ ­­) XVIII—ղ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­­, ­­ “”, ­, ’­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ (1831—1907), ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. 1863 ­ ­­ ­­糢 ˳­­­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ — ­ ., ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ (1877—1937), ­­-­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ (1882—1937).

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ “­­­ ­­”, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ̳­­­, ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ( ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­). ­ ­, ­ .  ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ³­­ ­-­­­­ (1808—1884). ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­. ­­, ­­, ­­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­. ­, ­ ­­ ­­.

, ­ ­

­­, ­­ “­­” ­­ ­­ 1922 ­. ­ ̳­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­ (1886–1976), ­­­ ­­ ­­ , 1924 ­ ­­: “ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ .” ” “­­” ­ — “­” “­ ­­”. ­­­­ ­, ­­­ “­ ­ ­”, ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ “­” ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­” (12.ղ); “­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ — . , ­­, …..”(25.ղ) (“­­­ ’”, ­ ­, ̳, 2018).

1928 ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ (1902—1964): “… ­ ­, ­­, ­­ ­ “­­” ­­­ ­­­, , ­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­, ­­, ­­­ 1928 . (…) ­ 糢­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­? ­ ­­­­, — ­ , ­­ ­­ ­­?” (“˳­­ ­­­ ­­”, ̳, 2020).

ֳ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­? ­, . ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­? ­, - ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­? ­­ “­­­­­” “­­”, … ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­.

­­ ­ ³­­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­.

P.S. ­­ ­ “” ­­ 28  ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ — ­­­ ­­­.

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