6 (435) 30.06.2019 - 30.06.2019

̲ Э έ ׭Ͳ
糢 1909 ̳ 쒳 . , ࢭ, 쳭 , ﳭ, , ̳୳ ̳ .

­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ̳ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. , ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ 2- ­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ó­.

­ ­ ­­­ ­­ 1928 ­, ­­ ­ ­­­. ̳­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ «­», ­­­ ­­ ­­ ˳­, ­ ­­ ˳­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ﳢ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ͳ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ̳­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­! , ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ — ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­-­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ̳. 1937 1941 ­ ̳­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, 1944 1963 ’­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­.

 

***

­ ­­­-­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­. 1997- ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ .

— ­­­ 11 ­, ­ ­ ­­ ̳­ ­­ ­­­ (­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­). ­ ­ ̳­­ ­­ — ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ’­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ , ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­.

­ ­ ­ ­­­­. ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ , ­­, ­. ­­ 1950 ­ ­­ ̳, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­.

­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ( ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­-­­­­), ­. ­ ­­: «­ ­­!» ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ , ­­.

­ ­­ ­ — ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­, ­ ­. 1953- ­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­ﳢ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ 1957- ­­ ̳. ­­ ­­­­, ­-­­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­, ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­...

 

­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­-­­­...

— ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­᳢ : ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­, ­­­­, ­­, ­ ’­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­­ ʳ­­.

­ ­­, ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ — ­ ­­­ ­ 32- ­­ , ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­­ , ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­.

­ ̳­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­, ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­. ­­­, ­ . ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­, 1945 1950 ­ ­­­ ­­.

­ ­­­ ­­ ̳­­ ­­. ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ — ­ -­­, ­­, ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­, , ­­,   ­ ­­. ­ ­ , 糢­­, ­ . ­­ ­­ — ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­.

­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, «­­­». , ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­. ­­, ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­. ­ ­ ̳­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ . ­­ ­­­­.

­­­ ­­ ­ ­­?

— ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ , ­­­, ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ , ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­.

̳­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ — ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­.

— ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ — ­­­­ , ­ ­­­ «­­­». ­­­ ­­­­ « ­­», ­­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ⸢, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­.

 

***

­, ­­ ­ ̳­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­*. ­­­ ­­­ — ­** ­­ — ­­­, ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ 1997 ­:

— ­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ — 10 ­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­. ̳­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ , ­, ­, ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ , ­ «­». ˳­ ­: ­, ­ ­­­?

­­ ­, ­, ­­­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­, ­­, ­­­­, ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­, ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­... ­­ ’­­ , ­Ⳣ­ ­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ͳ­­­ — ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ — ­­­ ­ ­­ ̳­­ ­­ ­­­ . ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ , ­ , ­’­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­.

­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­?

— ­ 4- , ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­-­­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­. ­­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ’­­ ­­. — ­­­­ ­­ ( ­ ­ ­­­ ­­), ­­ ­­. 4- ­ «­­糢» ­ ­, ­ ­ , ­, 6- ­ — ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ «­­-­­­». 7- ­ ­ ­, 8- — ­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­.

̳­­ ­­ ­ ­, . ­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­, ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ . ­­ ­­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­. ­ — ­­ ­­­­­, ­­, ­.

­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­. ­­, ­, ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­­, ­­ ­, ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­. ̳­­ ­­ , ­­­. ­­ ­ , ˳­ ­­.

­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­?

— ˳­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ̳­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­: ­­ ­, ­­, ­­­, ­ . ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ , ­­ ­: « ­ -­, ­ ­­­­». ­ ­ ­­­ — ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­.

ֳ ­­ ­ ­­?

— ­ ­­­ — ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­­­, ­­­ «̳­, ­, ­» — ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ (̳­­ ­, ­ ­­, ­ ­­). ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­.

­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ (­ ­ ­), ̳­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­: «­­­ ­», — ­­ ­ ­­ . ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ̳­, ­ ­ ­­­ , ­. ­­, ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­.

­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­: ­­, ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ̳­­ ­­­?

— ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. , ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­. ’­­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­. ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ , ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­.

̳­­ ­­, ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­­...

— ­, ­­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­, ’­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ’­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­. 1957 ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­.

­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ̳­­­ ­ ­’, ­­糢 ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­᳢ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­, ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­, ­⸢ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­.

­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ̳­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­, ­ , ­ . ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­’­ ­, ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ , ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­, ­, ­­... ­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ...

 

***

­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ʳ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ̳­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­­ 1997 ­:

— ­­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ 1947- — 10 ­ ­ 5 ­ ­­­­ — ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ , ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ 45 ­. ­­ ­ 2-3 ­­­ ­­, ­ 4-5 ­­­ ­. ̳­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­, ­­­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ 2- 3- ­. ­ ­­ ­.

­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­, ­, ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ — ­ ­ ­. , ­­, ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­: ­, ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ -­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­?

— ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­. ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­᳢, ­ ­­ ­­.

̳­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ˳­, ­­­ ­ ­ — ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­, ­, ­᳢ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ˳­.

ֳ ­ , ? ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­?

— ­­ ­­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ̳­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­, ­­­ ­.

­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­?

— ­­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ : ­ -­ ­­糢 , ­­ ­­Ⳣ­, ­­ ­. ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­: «­, ­ ­­ ­ ?» ­ ­ ­ ­ — ­­ ­ ­­­.

̳­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ , — ­᳢ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­.

­ ­­­ ­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­­, ­, ­, ­­­ — ­ ­ ­­­­ ­-­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­: ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ .

­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­, ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­’. ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ͸­. ­᳢ ­ ­. ­ ­ ̳­­­­, ­, ­­糢­ ­, ­­­­ ­’­. ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­. ­, ­­ ­, ­ — ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­, ­ ­­, ­ ­, ­ ­­­.

­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­...

— ˳­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ . Ţ­­, ­, ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ʳ­ ­­­­ ­­ ̳­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ — ͳ­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ , ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ’ ­­. ­­­ ­ 1- ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­. ­, ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­.

­­­ , ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­-­, ̳­­ ­, ­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­

­ ̳­­,

­ ̳­­